Innovative Fiber-optical Sensing (InFaSe)
Hadamard-transform fluorescence
Hadamard-transform fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix spectroscopy
N. Andrews, T. Ferguson, A. Rangaswamy, A. Bernicky, N. Henning, A. Dudelzak, O. Reich, J. Barnes, P. Loock
We present a fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix spectrometer with superior data acquisition rates over previous instruments. Light from a white light emitting diode (LED) source is dispersed onto a digital micromirror array (DMA) and encoded using binary n-size Walsh functions (“barcodes”). The encoded excitation light is used to irradiate the liquid sample and its fluorescence is dispersed and detected using a conventional array spectrometer. After exposure to excitation light encoded in n different ways, the 2-dimensional excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectrum is obtained by inverse Hadamard transformation. Using this technique we examined the kinetics of the fluorescence of rhodamine B as a function of temperature and the acid-driven demetalation of chlorophyll-a into pheophytin-a. For these experiments, EEM spectra with 31 excitation channels and 2048 emission channels were recorded every 15 s. In total, data from over 3000 EEM spectra were included in this report. It is shown that the increase in data acquisition rate can be as high as [{n(n + 1)}/2]-fold over conventional EEM spectrometers. Spectral acquisition rates of more than two spectra per second were demonstrated.
Journal Article